Medics spent 10 minutes trying to resuscitate the 23-year-old on the field after he fell to the ground with no other players around him.
BBC Radio 5 live’s Ian Dennis says the former England Under-21 international is fighting for his life.
The score was 1-1 when the match was abandoned after 41 minutes.
Medical staff gave Muamba mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and tried to revive him with a defibrillator. In total six medics were treating the player.
Both sets of supporters chanted Muamba’s name as he was taken off the pitch on a stretcher. ESPN, who were broadcasting the match, reported that he was not breathing as he was taken into the tunnel.
Referee Howard Webb called the visibly shaken players off the field after consulting with Bolton manager Owen Coyle and Tottenham boss Harry Redknapp.
Minutes later the match was abandoned.
A Bolton spokesman said: “Fabrice Muamba has been taken to hospital following his collapse. There is no further information at this time.”
The former Arsenal midfielder was accompanied in the ambulance by Coyle and club captain Kevin Davies.
BBC Radio 5 live’s chief football reporter Dennis, who was covering the game at White Hart Lane, witnessed medics rushing to aid Muamba.
“When the medical staff arrived his face was on the turf,” he said.
“You could see them using a defibrillator and he was [electronically] charged on at least two occasions. Everyone could see Fabrice Muamba was fighting for his life.
“If he does pull through it will be down to the quick actions of the medics.”
Soon after the incident, messages of support flooded in for the former Birmingham player.
Spurs’ Rafael van der Vaart was one of those on the pitch when Muamba collapsed. He tweeted: “Terrible what happened with Muamba during the game. We’re all praying for him.”
England international Jack Wilshere, who played with Muamba at Bolton, wrote: “Hope Muamba is OK. Thoughts with him.”
Middlesbrough defender Justin Hoyte, who played in the Arsenal youth team with Muamba, said: “I seriously hope my best friend in football is OK. Stay strong bro, please please stay strong. God is with you remember that.”
Professional Footballers’ Association chief executive Gordon Taylor said it was a “terrible thing to see for all the football family”.
“This can happen on a pitch and [it is] one of the reasons why we insist all youngsters coming into the game have the ability to have heart screenings to avoid this happening,” he said.
FA chairman David Bernstein said their thoughts and prayers were with Muamba and his family.
“Fabrice has played 33 times for England Under-21s, captaining Stuart Pearce’s side during this time and is a player, and more importantly, a person we care greatly for,” he said.
“We are in contact with Bolton Wanderers over Fabrice’s condition and are awaiting updates.”
Muamba joined Wanderers from Birmingham in 2008 and has made 148 appearances for the club.