The Real Betis defender was at Liverpool from 2005 to 2009, winning the FA Youth Cup in 2006, before joining the Spanish club.
He played once for the first team – against Galatasaray in the Champions League in December 2006.
A Liverpool statement read: “Everyone would like to send their thoughts to Miki’s family at this sad time.”
Roque underwent surgery to remove a tumour in his pelvis last year.
While at Liverpool, Roque had a loan spell with Oldham at the end of 2006-07. He also made temporary moves to Spanish sides Xerez and Cartagena before switching permanently to Betis.