This is coming a day after his efforts to form a government of technocrats failed.
Mr Jebali had been trying to form a new coalition in response to the political crisis sparked by the killing of opposition leader Chokri Belaid.
He had said he would quit if his Islamist Ennahda party did not back his plan for a cabinet of technocrats.
“I promised and assured that, in the event that my initiative failed, I would resign as head of the government, and that is what I have done,” he said.
Mr Belaid’s assassination on 6 February provoked mass protests and resignations from Tunisia’s coalition government.